Please take a look at Articles on self-defense/conflict/violence for introductions to the references found in the bibliography page.

Please take a look at my bibliography if you do not see a proper reference to a post.

Please take a look at my Notable Quotes

Hey, Attention on Deck!

Hey, NOTHING here is PERSONAL, get over it - Teach Me and I will Learn!


When you begin to feel like you are a tough guy, a warrior, a master of the martial arts or that you have lived a tough life, just take a moment and get some perspective with the following:


I've stopped knives that were coming to disembowel me

I've clawed for my gun while bullets ripped past me

I've dodged as someone tried to put an ax in my skull

I've fought screaming steel and left rubber on the road to avoid death

I've clawed broken glass out of my body after their opening attack failed

I've spit blood and body parts and broke strangle holds before gouging eyes

I've charged into fires, fought through blizzards and run from tornados

I've survived being hunted by gangs, killers and contract killers

The streets were my home, I hunted in the night and was hunted in turn


Please don't brag to me that you're a survivor because someone hit you. And don't tell me how 'tough' you are because of your training. As much as I've been through I know people who have survived much, much worse. - Marc MacYoung

WARNING, CAVEAT AND NOTE

The postings on this blog are my interpretation of readings, studies and experiences therefore errors and omissions are mine and mine alone. The content surrounding the extracts of books, see bibliography on this blog site, are also mine and mine alone therefore errors and omissions are also mine and mine alone and therefore why I highly recommended one read, study, research and fact find the material for clarity. My effort here is self-clarity toward a fuller understanding of the subject matter. See the bibliography for information on the books. Please make note that this article/post is my personal analysis of the subject and the information used was chosen or picked by me. It is not an analysis piece because it lacks complete and comprehensive research, it was not adequately and completely investigated and it is not balanced, i.e., it is my personal view without the views of others including subject experts, etc. Look at this as “Infotainment rather then expert research.” This is an opinion/editorial article/post meant to persuade the reader to think, decide and accept or reject my premise. It is an attempt to cause change or reinforce attitudes, beliefs and values as they apply to martial arts and/or self-defense. It is merely a commentary on the subject in the particular article presented.


Note: I will endevor to provide a bibliography and italicize any direct quotes from the materials I use for this blog. If there are mistakes, errors, and/or omissions, I take full responsibility for them as they are mine and mine alone. If you find any mistakes, errors, and/or omissions please comment and let me know along with the correct information and/or sources.



“What you are reading right now is a blog. It’s written and posted by me, because I want to. I get no financial remuneration for writing it. I don’t have to meet anyone’s criteria in order to post it. Not only I don’t have an employer or publisher, but I’m not even constrained by having to please an audience. If people won’t like it, they won’t read it, but I won’t lose anything by it. Provided I don’t break any laws (libel, incitement to violence, etc.), I can post whatever I want. This means that I can write openly and honestly, however controversial my opinions may be. It also means that I could write total bullshit; there is no quality control. I could be biased. I could be insane. I could be trolling. … not all sources are equivalent, and all sources have their pros and cons. These needs to be taken into account when evaluating information, and all information should be evaluated. - God’s Bastard, Sourcing Sources (this applies to this and other blogs by me as well; if you follow the idea's, advice or information you are on your own, don't come crying to me, it is all on you do do the work to make sure it works for you!)



“You should prepare yourself to dedicate at least five or six years to your training and practice to understand the philosophy and physiokinetics of martial arts and karate so that you can understand the true spirit of everything and dedicate your mind, body and spirit to the discipline of the art.” - cejames (note: you are on your own, make sure you get expert hands-on guidance in all things martial and self-defense)



“All I say is by way of discourse, and nothing by way of advice. I should not speak so boldly if it were my due to be believed.” - Montaigne

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Breathing in Karate

Caveat: Please make note that this article/post is my personal analysis of the subject and the information used was chosen or picked by me. It is not an analysis piece because it lacks complete and comprehensive research, it was not adequately and completely investigated and it is not balanced, i.e., it is my personal view without the views of others including subject experts, etc. Look at this as “Infotainment rather then expert research.” This is an opinion/editorial article/post meant to persuade the reader to think, decide and accept or reject my premise. It is an attempt to cause change or reinforce attitudes, beliefs and values as they apply to martial arts and/or self-defense. It is merely a commentary on the subject in the particular article presented.

This article is mine and mine alone. I the author of this article assure you, the reader, that any of the opinions expressed here are my own and are a result of the way in which my meandering mind interprets a particular situation and/or concept. The views expressed here are solely those of the author in his private capacity and do not in any way represent the views of other martial arts and/or conflict/violence professionals or authors of source materials. It should be quite obvious that the sources I used herein have not approved, endorsed, embraced, friended, liked, tweeted or authorized this article. (Everything I think and write is true, within the limits of my knowledge and understanding. Oh, and just because I wrote it and just because it sounds reasonable and just because it makes sense, does not mean it is true.) 

Breathing, in my limited experience seldom do sensei, teachers or instructors of the physical systems of violent conflict actually teach breathing and practitioners are often expected to just do it - naturally. Here is the rub with this view, not many folks actually breathe naturally. They tend to breathe from the chest rather than the diaphragm. 

The following excepts from the book, “Okugi Hijutsu Karatedo,” speak to the breathing methods of Kanken Toyama Sensei as he teaches. I do like them but they don’t go any deeper and that may simply stem from his need to teach hands-on, in the dojo. Many concepts of this nature are taught that way and tend to be emphasized as the only means of teaching proper breathing. I tend to agree but I also tend to provide more in my explanations simply because humans still need some “Hook” in their knowledge and understanding to connect the lessons to, to encode the new with the old as a means of learning - more effectively. There are other methods of effective learning and teaching but that is a teaching article for some other time.

Here are the two excerpts:

Double Breath Method
The double breath method is a breathing method in which the entire body is trained to have an elastic strength that allows your body to rebound an opponent’s kick or punch. If a normal person using only the single breath method receives ten attacks from an opponent, he will feel the shock of those ten. Similarly, if he receives eight attacks, he will feel the shock of eight. However, if the whole body is forged using the double breathe method, if he receives ten attacks from an opponent, he will feel the shock of only five. This is a secret technique not found in other martial arts.

Training Method
Draw power into the tanden (lower abdomen) through repeated deep and shallow breaths: inhale-exhale, inhale-exhale; exhale-inhale, exhale-inhale. While doing this ascetic practice you will feel strength and flexibility flowing down, out and extending through you. You will be conscious of power shifting naturally down to the tanden. Through the harmony of breath and mental technique, one can forge this elastic strength and understand the relationship between these two aspects of this fundamental technique.

I have other articles that will follow on various aspects of breathing. They don’t cover everything such as the maxim that one “breathes continuously when in stress and when performing exercises, etc. What I mean by this is in my past I have done the following and so have many of those who are of the same mind, i.e., using weight lifting where one tends to breathe in deeply then “HOLD” the breathe to supposedly increase strength, stability and ability to life heavier weights. In a nutshell, if you have to hold your breathe then you are doing something wrong. Effective breathing is about continuous, deep diaphragmatic, continuous breathing. It is about pushing to that point when working out, training or practicing, it is about going beyond that ability when training for adrenal stress conditions type reality training because at that point breathing properly will be very, very hard - but doable.

One of the breathing lessons I give is that one breathes continuously and properly for everything. It is about training toward increasing our breathing capacities to maintain when under adrenal flood or what some call the adrenal dump or chemical dump. To stop breathing with a full diaphragm/lungs to do something actually dampens your strength and lessens your endurance so that the muscles weaken because of low or used up potassium and other electrolytes that help muscles function optimally. You don’t want the effects of chemically deficient muscles when you are in the fight, right? You want to avoid the types of fatigue that come with muscles use, not move toward muscle fatigue faster.

More reading:

“Breathing and Movement” http://isshindo.blogspot.com/2014/11/breathing-and-movement.html
“Deep Diaphragmatic Breathing” http://isshindo.blogspot.com/2015/03/deep-diaphragmatic-breathing.html
“Breath, Breathe and Breathing” http://isshindo.blogspot.com/2013/11/breath-breathe-and-breathing.html
“Diaphragm and Stomach = Breathing” http://isshindo.blogspot.com/2014/11/diaphragm-and-stomach-breathing.html
“Breathing for Stress Training” http://isshindo.blogspot.com/2014/05/breathing-for-stress-training.html
“Kisoku [気息] - Breathing - more …” http://isshindo.blogspot.com/2014/05/crises-breathing-more.html

Primary Bibliography of Self-Defense:
MacYoung, Marc. "In the Name of Self-Defense: What It Costs. When It’s Worth It." Marc MacYoung. 2014.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Meditations of Violence: A Comparison of Martial Arts Training & Real World Violence" YMAA Publishing. 2008.

Bibliography Articles on Self-Defense/Conflict/Violence

The main page leading to the articles I have chosen as a starting point to attain knowledge of conflict, violence and self-defense is: http://ymaa.com/articles/society-and-self-defense where you can navigate to the below or you can simply find a title below and click for direct access to the articles. Most of these are actually introductions to the references written by the authors themselves. It is advisable to start here then move on to the more in-depth stuff in their publications. This section will get you a beginning understanding necessary in phase one of learning self-defense. 

I.M.O.P. Principle—Intent, Means, Opportunity and Preclusion http://ymaa.com/articles/2014/10/imop-principle-intent-means-opportunity-and-preclusion
Introduction to Violence: Scale of Force Options http://ymaa.com/articles/introduction-to-violence-scale-of-force-options
Facing Violence: The Unconscious Stuff-Finding Your Glitches http://ymaa.com/articles/facing-violence-the-unconscious-stuff
Violence: What Everyone Needs to Know About Fighting http://ymaa.com/articles/violence-what-everyone-needs-to-know-about-fighting

Secondary Bibliography of Self-Defense:
Ayoob, Massad. “Deadly Force: Understanding Your Right to Self-Defense”Gun Digest Books. Krouse Publications. Wisconsin. 2014.
Branca, Andrew F. “The Law of Self Defense: The Indispensable Guide to the Armed Citizen.” Law of Self Defense LLC. 2013.
Goleman, Daniel. "Emotional Intelligence: 10th Anniversary Edition [Kindle Edition]." Bantam. January 11, 2012.
Miller, Rory. "ConCom: Conflict Communications A New Paradigm in Conscious Communication." Amazon Digital Services, Inc. 2014. 
Miller, Rory and Kane, Lawrence A. "Scaling Force: Dynamic Decision-making under Threat of Violence." YMAA Publisher. New Hampshire. 2012
Miller, Rory. "Force Decisions: A Citizen's Guide." YMAA Publications. NH. 2012.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Facing Violence: Preparing for the Unexpected." YMAA Publishing. 2011.
Elgin, Suzette Haden, Ph.D. "More on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense." Prentice Hall. New Jersey. 1983.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Last Word on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1995
MacYoung, Marc. “Writing Violence #1: Getting Shot.” NNSD. Amazon Digital. 2014.
MacYoung, Marc. “Writing Violence #2: Getting Stabbed.”  NNSD. Amazon Digital. 2015.
Morris, Desmond. “Manwatching: A Field Guide to Human Behavior.” Harry N. Abrams. April 1979.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1993.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Written Self-Defense" MJF Books. 1997.
Maffetone, Philip Dr. “The Maffetone Method: The Holistic, Low-stress, No-Pain Way to Exceptional Fitness.” McGraw Hill, New York. 2000
Strong, Sanford. “Strong on Defense_ Survival Rules to Protect you and your Family from Crime.” Pocket Books. New York. 1996.
and more … see blog bibliography.
Jahn, C. R. “FTW Self Defense.” iUniverse. Amazon Digital Services. 2012
Jahn, C. R. “Hardcore Self Defense.” iUniverse. Amazon Digital Services. 2002.

Bibliography of RBC Drills (Some titles have RBC drills included):
MacYoung, Marc. "In the Name of Self-Defense: What It Costs. When It’s Worth It." Marc MacYoung. 2014.
MacYoung, Marc (Animal). “Taking It to the Street: Making Your Martial Art Street Effective.” Paladin Press. Boulder, Colorado. 1999.
MacYoung, Marc. "A Professional's Guide to Ending Violence Quickly: How Bouncers, Bodyguards, and Other Security Professionals Handle Ugly Situations." Paladin Press. Boulder, Colorado. 1996.
Miller, Rory. “Drills: Training for the Sudden Violence.” Amazon Digital Services, inc. Smashwords. 2011.
Quinn, Peyton. “Real Fighting: Adrenaline Stress Conditioning Through Scenario-Based Training.” Paladin Press. Amazon Digital Services, inc. 1996

My Blog Bibliography
Cornered Cat (Scratching Post): http://www.corneredcat.com/scratching-post/
Kodokan Boston: http://kodokanboston.org
Mario McKenna (Kowakan): http://www.kowakan.com
Wim Demeere’s Blog: http://www.wimsblog.com

Bibliography (updated 21-08-2014):

Advincula, A. J. The Naming of Isshin-ryu: In the beginning there was the one. Isshnikai:The Official Website of Sensei Arcenio J. Advincula. http://www.isshinkai.net/history03-birthofisshinryu.html. 2009
Advincula, A.J. Isshinkai Yahoo Group. http://sports.groups.yahoo.com/group/isshinkaiKarate/. 2010
Advincula, A. J. MSgt USMC (Ret.), Isshinryu Sensei. "His writings and postings of Isshinryu and Kenpo Gokui on Isshinkai. California 2009.
Advincula, A.J. "Chinkuchi". Isshinkai Group Thread: February, 2007
Advincula, Arcenio J. Isshinkai Yahoo Group; isshinkaiKarate@yahoogroups.com: April, 2007
Advincula, Arcenio J. Isshinkai Yahoo Group; isshinkaiKarate@yahoogroups.com: May, 2007
Advincula, A.J. "Chinkuchi". Isshinkai Group Thread: February, 2007
Advincuala, A. J. http://www.isshinkai.net/ 
Advincula, A.J. "Isshinryu no Gokui." Online Posts. 13 April 2001 to present date. IsshinKai Yahoo Group. 
Ayoob, Massad. “Deadly Force: Understanding Your Right to Self-Defense”Gun Digest Books. Krouse Publications. Wisconsin. 2014.

Bolton, Robert, Ph.D. "People Skills: How to Assert Yourself, Listen to Others, and Resolve Conflicts." Simon & Schuster. New York. 1979. 1986.
Boyd, Charles. Kenpo Gokui. Isshinkai Yahoo Group Post 2009.
Breed, George. "Embodying Heaven and Earth: A Radiant Model of Transformation." Publication: International Journal of Humanities and Peace Publication 2003

Chu, W. K. and Sherrill, W. A. The Astrology of I Ching. New York. Penguin Books. 1976
Chu, W. K. and Sherrill, W. A. An Anthology of I Ching. London. Routledge and Kegan Paul. 1977.
Clarke, Michael. "Shin Gi Tai: Karate Training for Body, Mind, and Spirit." YMAA Publishing. New Hampshire. 2011.

Davies, Roger J. and Ikeno, Osamu. "The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture." Tuttle Publishing. Tokyo, Japan. 2002.
DeMente, Boye Lafayette. "Japan's Cultural Code Words: 233 Key Terms That Explain the Attitudes and Behavior of the Japanese." Tuttle. Vermont, Tokyo and Singapore. 2004. 
DeMente, Boye Lafayette. "Kata: The Key to Understanding & Dealing with the Japanese." Tuttle Publishing. Tokyo, Vermont and Singapore. 2003
Bibliography:
DeMente, Boye LaFayette. "Samurai Strategies: 42 Martial Secrets from Musashi's Book of Five Rings." Tuttle Publishing. Vermont. 2008.
DeMente, Boye LaFayette. "The Origins of Human Violence: Male Dominance, Ignorance, Religions and Willful Stupidity!" Phoenix Books. Kentucky. 2010.
DeMente, Boye LaFayette. "The Japanese Samurai Code: Classic strategies for Success." Tuttle Publishing. Vermont. 2004.
DeMente, Boye LaFayette. "The Chinese Mind: Understanding Traditional Chinese Beliefs and Their Influence on Contemporary Culture." Tuttle Publishing. Rutland, Vermont. 2009.
DeMente, Boye LaFayette. "The Chinese Have a Word for It: The Complete Guide to Chinese Thought and Culture." McGraw Hill Publishing. New York. 1996.

Elgin, Suzette Haden, Ph.D. "More on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense." Prentice Hall. New Jersey. 1983.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Self-Defense at Work." New York. Prentice Hall Press. 2000.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1993.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Written Self-Defense" MJF Books. 1997
Elgin, Suzette. "The Last Word on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1995
Elgin, Suzette. "Staying Well with the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense." MJF Books. 1990.

Gladwell, Malcolm. "Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking." Bay Back Books. France. 2007.
Goleman, Daniel. “Emotional Intelligence: 10th Anniversary Edition [Kindle Edition].” Bantam. January 11, 2012.
Gunaratana, Bhante. Mindfulness in Plain English. Wisdom Publications; 2nd edition. September 2002. 

Hall, Edward T. "The Dance of Life: The Other Dimension of Time." Anchor Books. New York. 1983, 1984, 1989.
Hall, Edward T. "The Hidden Dimension." Anchor Books. New York. 1969, 1990.
Hall, Edward T. and Hall, Mildred Reed. "Hidden Differences: Doing Business with the Japanese." Anchor Books. New York. 1987, 1990.
Hanson, Rick and Mendius, Richard. The Practical Neuroscience of Buddha's Brain: Happiness, Love & Wisdom. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications, Inc. 2009.
Heath, Robin. Sun, Moon, & Earth. Wooden Books, Ltd. Ontario Canada. 1999 
Hayes, William R. Major USMC (ret.) Shorin-ryu Karate-do. "My Journey with the Grandmaster: Reflections of an American Martial Artist on Okinawa." Morris Publishing, Kearney, NE, 1997/2009 ISBN: 978-1-575-02-554-4
Huang, Alfred. "The Complete I Ching." Inner Traditions Rochester, Vermont. 1998 
[NEXT]
Isshinkai Yahoo Group, "Re: [Isshin Kai Karate] finding Personal hexagram Okinawa History & traditions" dtd Tue, Jul 20, 2010 at 1:13 AM isshinkaiKarate@yahoogroups.com
Iyengar, B.K.S. Light on Pranayama: The Yogic Art of Breathing. Crossroad Publishing New York. 2010. 

Jahn, C. R. “FTW Self Defense.” iUniverse. Amazon Digital Services. 2012
Jahn, C. R. “Hardcore Self Defense.” iUniverse. Amazon Digital Services. 2002.
Jahn, C. R. “Warrior Wisdom.” iUniverse. Amazon Digital Services. 2012.
Johnson, Noah C. G. “The Japanization of Karate: Placing an Intangible Cultural Practice.” Journal of Contemporary Anthropology (Research Article), Volume III, Issue 1, 2012. University of Iowa. 

Kaiguo, Chen, Shundhao, Zheng, Cleary, Thomas. "Opening the Dragon's Gate: The Making of a Modern Taoist Wizard. Tuttle Publishing. Vermont. 1996.

Lowry, Dave. "The Essence of Budo: A Practitioner's Guide to Understanding the Japanese Martial Ways." Boston & London, Shambhala Publications. 2010.
Lundy, Miranda. Sacred Geometry. New York. Walker Publishing Company. 2007

MacYoung, Marc. "Violence, Blunders, and Fractured Jaws: Advanced Awareness Techniques and Street Etiquette." Paladin Press. Boulder, Colorado. 1992. 
MacYoung, Marc. “In the Name of Self-Defense: What It Costs. When It’s Worth It.” Marc MacYoung. 2014.
MacYoung, Marc. "A Professional's Guide to Ending Violence Quickly: How Bouncers, Bodyguards, and Other Security Professionals Handle Ugly Situations." Paladin Press. Boulder, Colorado. 1996.
MacYoung, Marc (Animal). “Taking It to the Street: Making Your Martial Art Street Effective.” Paladin Press. Boulder, Colorado. 1999.
MacYoung, Marc. “Writing Violence #1: Getting Shot.” NNSD. Amazon Digital. 2014.
MacYoung, Marc. “Writing Violence #2: Getting Stabbed.”  NNSD. Amazon Digital. 2015.
Maffetone, Philip Dr. “The Maffetone Method: The Holistic, Low-stress, No-Pain Way to Exceptional Fitness.” McGraw Hill, New York. 2000.
Matsumoto, Michihiro. "The Unspoken Way, Haragei: Silence in Japanese Business and Society." Kodansha. New York. 1988.
Meadows, Donella H. “Thinking in Systems.” Chelsea Green Publishing. Vermont. 2008.
Miller, Kamila. "Campfire Tales from Hell: Musing on Martial Arts, Survival, Bounding, and General Thug Stuff." CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. 2012.
Miller, Rory. "ConCom: Conflict Communications A New Paradigm in Conscious Communication." Amazon Digital Services, Inc. 2014.
Miller, Rory. "Violence: A Writer's Guide." Pacific Northwest. Wyrd Goat Press. 2012.
Miller, Rory and Kane, Lawrence A. "Scaling Force: Dynamic Decision-making under Threat of Violence." YMAA Publisher. New Hampshire. 2012
Miller, Rory. "Force Decisions: A Citizen's Guide." YMAA Publications. NH. 2012.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Meditations of Violence: A Comparison of Martial Arts Training & Real World Violence" YMAA Publishing. 2008.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Facing Violence: Preparing for the Unexpected." YMAA Publishing. 2011.
Miller, Rory. “Drills: Training for the Sudden Violence.” Amazon Digital Services, inc. Smashwords. 2011.
Morris, Desmond. “Manwatching: A Field Guide to Human Behavior.” Harry N. Abrams. April 1979. 

Newberg, Andrew MD and Waldman, Mark Robert. "Why We Believe What We Believe: Uncovering Our Biological Need for Meaning, Spirituality, and Truth." Free Press. New York. 2006
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Okakura, Kakuzo. Dover Publications. New York. 1964.

Pease, Marshall. The Aquarian I Ching. Brotherhood of Life, inc. Albuquerque, NM. 1993.
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Powers, William. "Hamlet's Blackberry: A Practical Philosophy for Building a Good Life in the Digital Age." New York. HarperCollins Publishing. 2010

Quinn, Peyton. “Real Fighting: Adrenaline Stress Conditioning Through Scenario-Based Training.” Paladin Press. Amazon Digital Services, inc. 1996.

Sato, Hiroaki. "Legends of the Samurai." Overlook Press. New York. 1995. 
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Bibliography Research Traditions of Karate

Amdur, Ellis
2001 Women in the Martial Arts: Japan. In Martial Arts of the World. Thomas Green, ed. Pp.
699-702. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Appadurai, Arjun
1990 Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy. In Global Culture:
Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity. Mike Featherstone, ed. Pp. 2995-310. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Arnason, Johann
1990 Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity. In Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization
and Modernity. Mike Featherston ed. Pp. 207-236. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Ashkenazi, Michael
2002 Ritual and the Ideal Society in Karate. In Combat Ritual, and Performance: Anthropology
of the Martial Arts. David Jones, ed. Pp. 99-118. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Befu, Harumi
1993 Nationalism and Nihonjinron. In Cultural Nationalism in East Asia. Harumi Befu, ed. Pp.
105-135. Berkley, CA: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California.
Chan, Stephen
2000 The Construction and Export of Culture as Artifact: The Case of Japanese Martial Arts.
Body & Society 6(1): 69–74.
Csordas, Thomas
1990 Embodiment as a Paradigm for Anthropology. Ethos 18(1): 5-47.
Cvetkovich, Ann & Kellner, Douglas
1997 Introduction: Thinking Global and Local. In Articulating the Global and the Local. Ann
Cvetkovich & Douglas Kellner, eds. Pp. 1-30. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Donohue, John
1992 Dancing in the Danger Zone: The Martial Arts in America. Journal of Asian Martial Arts
1(1): 86-99.
1993 The Ritual Dimension of Karate-Do. Journal of Ritual Studies 7(1): 105-124.
Johnson: The Japanization of Karate 76
Featherstone, Mike
1990 Global Culture: An Introduction. In Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and
Modernity. Mike Featherstone, ed. Pp.1-14. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Friman, Richard
1996 Blinded by the Light: Politics and Profit in the Martial Arts. Journal of Asian Martial Arts
5(3): 10-19.
1998 The Art of Regulation: Martial Arts as Threats to Social Order. Journal of Asian Martial Arts 7(3): 11-23.
Goodman, Roger
2005 “Making Majority Culture,” In A Companion to the Anthropology of Japan. Jennifer
Robertson, ed. Pp. 59-72. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Gusfield, Joseph
1967 Tradition and Modernity: Misplaced Polarities in the Study of Social Change. American
Journal of Sociology 72(4): 351-362. Hassell, Randall
2007 Shotokan Karate: Its History and Evolution. Los Angeles, CA: Empire Books. Hobsbawm, Eric & Ranger, Terence, eds.
1992 The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hudson, Mark
1999 Ruins of Identity: Ethnogenesis in the Japanese Islands. Honolulu: The University of
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2000 Okinawa: The History of an Island People. Rutland, VT: Tuttle Publishing.
Ko, Jong Jae & Yang, Jin Bang
2008 The Globalization of Martial Arts: The Change of Rules for New Markets. Journal of
Asian Martial Arts 17(4): 8-19.
Krug, Gary
2001 At the Feet of the Master: Three Stages in the Appropriation of Okinawan Karate Into
Anglo-American Culture. Cultural Studies Critical Methodologies 1(4): 395-410.
77 Journal of Contemporary Anthropology Volume 3 (2012), Iss. 1
Madis, Eric
2003 The Evolution of Taekwondo From Japanese Karate. In Martial Arts in the Modern World.
Thomas Green & Joseph Svinth, eds. Pp. 185-208. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Moening, Uda
2011 The Evolution of Kicking Techniques in Taekwondo. Journal of Asian Martial Arts 20(1):
9-31.
Morris-Suzuki, Tessa
1996 A Descent into the Past: The Frontier in the Construction of Japanese Identity. In
Multicultural Japan: Paleolithic to Postmodern. Donald Denoon, Mark Hudson, Gavan McCormack, Tessa Morris-Suzuki, eds. Pp. 81-94. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mottern, Ron
2001 Karate, Japan. In Martial Arts of the World. Thomas Green, ed. Pp. 232-240. Santa
Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
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2001 Karate, Okinawa. In Martial Arts of the World. Thomas Green, ed. Pp. 240-249. Santa
Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Mottern, Ron
2001 Kobudo, Okinawa. In Martial Arts of the World. Thomas Green, ed. Pp. 286-291. Santa
Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Mottern, Ron
2001 Okinawa. In Martial Arts of the World. Thomas Green, ed. Pp. 363-367. Santa Barbara,
CA: ABC-CLIO. Nakane Chie
1970 Japanese Society. Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
Rosenbaum, Michael
2002 The Fighting Arts: Their Evolution From Secret Societies to Modern Times. Boston:
YMAA Publication Center. Sugimoto, Yoshio
2003 An Introduction to Japanese Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Traphagan, John & Thompson, Christopher
2006 The Practice of Tradition and Modernity in Contemporary Japan. In. Thompson &
Traphagan, eds. Pp. 2-24. Albany, NY: Wearing Cultural Styles in Japan: Concepts of Tradition and Modernity in Practice State University of New York Press.
Johnson: The Japanization of Karate 78
Ueno, Chizuko
1987 The Position of Japanese Women Reconsidered. Themed Issue, “An Anthropological
Profile of Japan,” Current Anthropology 28(4): S75-S84.

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