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Why do we do this? Simple, we do this as a basic, to learn the fundamentals of punching. We chamber then execute and finally hit the target. We learn about form and function. We learn about following the path of the fist with the elbow, etc. We learn to stay relaxed until contact then tighten the fist, etc. Hopefully we learn about structure, alignment, posture, momentum, speed, timing, distance, etc. when punching. In other words this is the fundamentally basic "start point" to learn.
What has happened in many dojo, Isshinryu since that is my most experience, is they never progress. They all assume this is the written in stone way of doing it in basics techniques, kata and kumite. Most never learn there is more, something beyond the basics, if fighting is a part of the agenda when instructing.
Once you learn how to effectively punch and/or strike then leave chambering behind. Cover your open zones. Marc MacYoung refers to those areas as quadrants. We have only two hands, forearms, elbows, etc. to cover our entire front. He divides this into four quadrants where our arms, etc. can cover only two of them at a time. You need to use positioning to cover the two not covered by the arms. Keeping the open quadrants out of range while covering the other two with arms and hands, etc. is a good thing.
You cannot do this fundamental protection if you chamber. Also remember that if you chamber or re-chamber you are broadcasting your intent and the distance you have to travel from chamber to target with a punch means a good fighter has time to move and not get hit. Marc makes a lot of sense with this and many Isshinryu factions do not teach us this strategic truism.
Chambering, good for learning; chambering, not good in fighting strategies and tactics. Move beyond chambering, yes! Remember if your hands and arms are in a protective position covering two of your quadrants; if you position your body to keep the other two out of punch/striking distance then those two arms and hands should be such that when you move quickly into range they strike like really, really powerfully, yes?
MacYoung, Marc. "A Professional's Guide to Ending Violence Quickly: How Bouncers, Bodyguards, and Other Security Professionals Handle Ugly Situations." Paladin Press. Boulder, Colorado. 1996.
MacYoung, Marc. "Violence, Blunders, and Fractured Jaws: Advanced Awareness Techniques and Street Etiquette." Paladin Press. Boulder, Colorado. 1992.