Please take a look at my bibliography if you do not see a proper reference to a post.

When you begin to feel like you are a tough guy, a warrior, a master of the martial arts or that you have lived a tough life, just take a moment and get some perspective with the following:


I've stopped knives that were coming to disembowel me

I've clawed for my gun while bullets ripped past me

I've dodged as someone tried to put an ax in my skull

I've fought screaming steel and left rubber on the road to avoid death

I've clawed broken glass out of my body after their opening attack failed

I've spit blood and body parts and broke strangle holds before gouging eyes

I've charged into fires, fought through blizzards and run from tornados

I've survived being hunted by gangs, killers and contract killers

The streets were my home, I hunted in the night and was hunted in turn


Please don't brag to me that you're a survivor because someone hit you. And don't tell me how 'tough' you are because of your training. As much as I've been through I know people who have survived much, much worse. - Marc MacYoung

WARNING, CAVEAT AND NOTE

The postings on this blog are my interpretation of readings, studies and experiences therefore errors and omissions are mine and mine alone. The content surrounding the extracts of books, see bibliography on this blog site, are also mine and mine alone therefore errors and omissions are also mine and mine alone and therefore why I highly recommended one read, study, research and fact find the material for clarity. My effort here is self-clarity toward a fuller understanding of the subject matter. See the bibliography for information on the books.


Note: I will endevor to provide a bibliography and italicize any direct quotes from the materials I use for this blog. If there are mistakes, errors, and/or omissions, I take full responsibility for them as they are mine and mine alone. If you find any mistakes, errors, and/or omissions please comment and let me know along with the correct information and/or sources.

My Blog Bibliography or The Blogs I Read Daily

Cornered Cat (Scratching Post): http://www.corneredcat.com/scratching-post/
Kodokan Boston: http://kodokanboston.org
Mario McKenna (Kowakan): http://www.kowakan.com
Wim Demeere’s Blog: http://www.wimsblog.com


Kata in Three’s

Caveat: this post is my interpretation of readings and studies therefore errors and omissions are mine and mine alone. It is highly recommended one fact check the data for clarity. My effort here is self-clarity toward a fuller understanding of the subject matter.

Notice how kata tends to go in groups of three’s? Ever wonder why? I have provided my thoughts on this in the past but today I am presenting another reason. It has to do with self-defense.

As we study the karate system of Okinawa we find, historically, that it was meant to be a prerequisite toward the training, practice and use of weapons in combat. You know, like the one day class you get in the military for hand-to-hand (circa 1972) combat training. Well, there is a particular aspect to violence and attacks with bare hands (yes, karate was also the hand-to-hand system back then) that I believe resulted in the professionals of those times putting in the “Three’s” into the kata.

Let me set the stage by using the modern forms of karate training, i.e., kumite in the dojo and competitive tournament karate. It revolves around the one point system. We tend to train in a way that often has us applying a technique then jumping back to see if it resulted in a point. Not all the time but often. We also kumite with one or two strikes then jump back to see what the other guy is going to do and so on. This is not a good model for self-defense training. 

Now, when you are attacked you are not going to have time to get into a stance, face off, then play around trying to feel out your opponent before applying your karate techniques. As Rory Miller puts it in his latest DVD, you are already under attack by surprise and feeling the pain and damage causing your fear to rear its ugly head. In training it is best to start training for what you do after you are under a surprise attack. Rory Miller had his associate demonstrate by hitting him in the neck/face the Mr. Miller said something like, “This is where your training should begin.” How many of us in dojo actually train this way? (Caveat: to actually hit someone like an attack is not really done but play acted because there is too much damage that will occur, not good for training and that present the question as to how you train for this, see his video as I am sure he has suggestions :-) ).

Anyway, back to the three’s. (kinda got sidetracked huh) When you are defending yourself you have to deal with chemical cocktails or what I call adrenal flooding and so does the adversary (although the adversary attacks when his flood is at the optimal levels) and when that happens the effects are something you have to deal with. For instance, in competition and/or sparring if you connect hard you can cause your opponent to stagger or most of the time they “Stop” and so do you, that ain’t good in the fight. Then there is that same punch used in a self-defense situation that your mind will say, “OK, I hit him, stop and wait to see what he does.” Again, not good. Why? Because he didn’t’ even feel it, not even a little bit. So, more often than not you are going to have to keep at it until you can determine that he is stopping or leaving or running away or just down and out and then you stop because, as you know, your application of force is no longer needed. But you are going to have to go at it to get-r-done. 

This is why I feel their are three’s in kata. It is because they are teaching their students that it is often necessary to apply a flurry of techniques for a variety of reasons until the threat is stopped and along with it the damage you are taking. That would be the minimum of applicable techniques needed before you try to determine if the threat has stopped the damage to you. It isn’t easy because you have to be able to tell when to stop but also if the adversary is still able and demonstrating the continuing threat of damage you have to go beyond that three. 

In another view another professional once said that you need to end it within about three techniques because going beyond means you are fighting and prone to leaving the SD Square or as I call it the circle. That, of course, is a whole nother post about removing the techniques that are the chaff so the good ones, the wheat, remain. 

Anyway, the need for the three is about passing forward the information to defend against an attack, self-defense. I am sure that those “Three’s” back in the day were also the minimum but also I feel they didn’t have to contend with prosecutors, etc., chipping away at their actions for the sake of numbers, convictions and job security. 

Primary Bibliography of Self-Defense:
MacYoung, Marc. "In the Name of Self-Defense: What It Costs. When It’s Worth It." Marc MacYoung. 2014.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Meditations of Violence: A Comparison of Martial Arts Training & Real World Violence" YMAA Publishing. 2008.

Secondary Bibliography of Self-Defense:
Goleman, Daniel. "Emotional Intelligence: 10th Anniversary Edition [Kindle Edition]." Bantam. January 11, 2012.
Miller, Rory. "ConCom: Conflict Communications A New Paradigm in Conscious Communication." Amazon Digital Services, Inc. 2014. 
Miller, Rory and Kane, Lawrence A. "Scaling Force: Dynamic Decision-making under Threat of Violence." YMAA Publisher. New Hampshire. 2012
Miller, Rory. "Force Decisions: A Citizen's Guide." YMAA Publications. NH. 2012.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Facing Violence: Preparing for the Unexpected." YMAA Publishing. 2011.
Elgin, Suzette Haden, Ph.D. "More on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense." Prentice Hall. New Jersey. 1983.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Last Word on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1995
Morris, Desmond. “Manwatching: A Field Guide to Human Behavior.” Harry N. Abrams. April 1979.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1993.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Written Self-Defense" MJF Books. 1997.

Maffetone, Philip Dr. “The Maffetone Method: The Holistic, Low-stress, No-Pain Way to Exceptional Fitness.” McGraw Hill, New York. 2000 and more … see blog bibliography.

Karate, Empty Hand [空手 · 唐手]

Caveat: this post is my interpretation of readings and studies therefore errors and omissions are mine and mine alone. It is highly recommended one fact check the data for clarity. My effort here is self-clarity toward a fuller understanding of the subject matter.  

At first, when karate was first used, they used the characters/ideograms [唐手] that meant, “T’ang; China.” Later, per Gichin Funakoshi sensei, the characters/ideograms [空手] that meant, “Empty; sky;void; vacant; vacuum.” The character/ideogram for hand [] was used for both. 

It appears that the two older characters were used in deference to the sources that resulted in the system/art of Ti (Tee) as pronounced in the Okinawan dialect, i.e., Hogen/Uchinaguchi, that also meant “Hand.” 

The reasons the indigenous art of Okinawan Ti used hand was not necessarily because one had to use their bare hands for defense and protection but rather the empty hand was the method to not only protect with the empty hand but the empty hand also was a prerequisite toward the training, practice and use of weaponry be it the “Stick (Bo),” “Iron Foot (Sai),” or “Spear (a blade that inserted into a stick relating it to the Bo).” 

The empty hand training therefore not only taught the practitioner to protect themselves with bare fists and feet, etc., but also provided the foundation that enhanced and promoted the training and practice of weaponry as explained in the last paragraph, i.e., the bo, etc.

Then there  is the use of “Empty.” Yes, it was a fundamental trait of the martial arts that one must use hands with no weaponry like the bo or sai but it held other meaning as well. Skills with “Empty,” i.e., weaponless hands, are a foundation for the employment of “Forms,” i.e., forms in those days were meant to relate to weapons training and practice. Then the meaning of empty hand is to be rooted in all martial arts where the forms are emptiness, another translation and meaning behind the character/ideogram []; emptiness being form. The emptiness is where all martial arts begin while they assume variances in form such as weaponless form along with form that extends the hands through the arts of weaponry or what is referred to today as, “Kobudo [古武道 - 琉球古武術] or Kobudo-jutsu.”

In closing, the “Empty Hand” is the root, the foundation of all martial arts because without the empty hand weapons are empty or useless, of all martial systems/style/arts. If one takes in hand a weapon instead of the fist, it becomes the art of the type of weapon taken up by that hand. If one takes up in their empty hand the bo, then the art becomes the art of the bo, bo-jutsu. Therefore karate, empty hand, does not contain exclusively weaponless components but rather is the seed that expressed the roots, trunk, branches, leaves, etc., that is martial arts or systems, i.e. bo-jutsu, sai-jutsu, yai-jutsu, and so on. 

Empty hand is not just an empty hand but the source, the soil, that provides extensions and variations of all martial prowess from the hands, feet, body of the practitioner to those enhancements or extensions we call kobudo, weapons. Like many terms, characters and ideograms used in Asian martial arts, they don’t just have one distinct meaning but allude to many variations on meaning for the application, training and learning of martial arts. 

Note: If this is true and accurate then the lumping of all martial arts both empty handed and weapons based are truly and correctly lumped under the title of, “Karate [空手].”


Note: It was understood also that Funakoshi Sensei also focused on the empty hand in reverse, i.e., the need to carry weapons in modern times is no longer acceptable especially after WWII. Modern society does not condone the use of enhancements or weapons outside of the professions that use them for enforcement of societies rules and laws therefore, as Funakoshi Sensei meant in the early 1900’s, practitioners should focus more a kind of self-defense/protection that allows them to defend attacks, etc., without weaponry. Thus, why weapons like the bo, in early days, was taught, trained and practiced after learning empty handed methods. 

Bibliography:
Wittwer, Henning. “Scouting Out the Historical Course of Karate: Collected Essays.” Impressum. Germany. 2014 (www.lulu.com)

Martial Arts Terminology

Caveat: this post is my interpretation of readings and studies therefore errors and omissions are mine and mine alone. It is highly recommended one fact check the data for clarity. My effort here is self-clarity toward a fuller understanding of the subject matter.  

First, we are Westerners and we speak, write and use English. One of the draws toward martial arts is it Asian mystical traits that provide a sense of specialness. In that form westerners tend to gravitate toward the Asian terms and characters. In the sixties, seventies and even eighties it is doubtful that anyone took the time and effort to make sure that the terms in use were actually correct and proper in the usage made by American Martial Artists. 

Today, the sources are vast and detailed but still difficult to grasp properly and utilize because the variances in definitions and translations are convoluted and strange and difficult, even for Asians. I was told by a Japanese that often and due to variances even in Japan that people from different areas would need to actually draw out the characters when talking to make the word or term used clear so that it would convey the proper meaning according to the conversation. Yet, we Americans and without any type of actual training, education or experience will create and use Japanese/Okinawan/Chinese/Korean terms somewhat willy nilly and for our own purposes so that we may appear to the uninitiated as professional martial artists with connections directly to the culture and martial systems we practice and teach.

Another well known and proficient person in both martial arts and the language was told when he left Japan, by his sensei, that he should go teach the system/style in America as he would teach an American subject in American. I got this to mean that he should pretty much leave a lot of the extraneous stuff behind, in Japan, and translate it toward language, cultures and customs of the west to teach the martial system/style. 

Then again, many of today’s martial systems/styles may not have caught on if not for the Asian mystique we tied to our efforts when we came to the America states to pass on what we all learned in Asia. Add in the media industries push of the “B” martial arts movies from China, etc. i.e., think Bruce Lee here, this fed the demand for “Authentic Asian Martial Arts Training.” So, being the supply minded people we are, we gave them what they “Thought” they wanted and even today most cannot and will not learn whether what is presented is actually authenticated or just “Made up.” 

Personally, I have worked over the years to collect terminology toward martial arts but more as a teaching tool rather than a requirement in the training hall. If someone were to join my dojo today, I would not require learning or using Japanese or Okinawan terms, nor use of the karate uniform, nor the belts for grading/levels. Loose clothing, etc. along with English explanations would be the term of the day. 

I would present and use my version of the terminology as a teaching tool. An example is like the following, i.e., providing a term, in Japanese, and its associated characters/ideograms followed by definitions and martial arts oriented explanations of its usage to teach about such things as why terms in martial arts Asian languages and characters can and may be explained in a variety of ways.

My example to follow is the term, “Terminology.” 

ENGLISH: Terminology: The body of terms used with a particular technical application in a subject of study, theory, profession, etc.; the study of terms and their use. Terms are words and compound words that in specific contexts are given specific meanings—these may deviate from the meanings the same words have in other contexts and in everyday language.

DEFINE: Strike: to hit forcebly and deliberately with one’s hand or a weapon or other implement. 

The english definitions are often pretty straight forward if the word is used and defined by the subject of study as in this case, karate. If we don’t know the usage then we could extend that toward, “a refusal to work organized by a body of employees as a form of protest, typically in an attempt to gain a concession or concessions from their employer.”

ASIAN: Terminology:


Goi [語彙]  

The characters/ideograms mean, “Vocabulary; lexicon; lexis; terminology.” The first character means, “Word; speech; language,” the second character means, “same kind.”

Yougo [用語]

The characters/ideograms mean, “Term; terminology; wording; choice of words; phraseology.” The first character means, “Utilize; business; service; use; employ,” the second character means, “word; speech; language.”

Jutsugo [術語]

The characters/ideograms mean, “Technical term; terminology; nomenclature.” The first character means, “Art; technique; skill; means; trick; resources; magic,” the second character means, “word; speech; language.”

Yougohou [用語法]

The characters/ideograms mean, “Word usage; terminology.” The first character means, “Utilize; business; service; use; employ,” the second character means, “word; speech; language,” the third character means, “method; law; rule; principle; model; system.”

Senmon’yougoshuu [専門用語集]

The characters/ideograms mean, “Technical glossary; terminology.” The first character means, “Specialty; exclusive; mainly; solely,” the second character means, “gate; counter for cannons,” the third character means, “utilize; business; service; use; employ,” the fourth character means, “word; speech; language,” the fifth character means, “gather; meet; congregate; swarm; flock.” 

Kouyoubun [公用文]

The characters/ideograms mean, “Official terminology.” The first character means, “Public; prince; official; governmental,” the second character means, “utilize; business; service; use; employ,” the third character means, “sentence; literature; style; art; decoration; figures; plan.” 

Senmongo [専門語]

The characters/ideograms mean, “(Specialist) terminology.” The first character means, “Speciality; exclusive; mainly; solely,” the second character means, “gate,” the third character means, “word; speech; language.” 

Now, as can be seen with the above there are far more interpretations and definitions of one word that can and do mean the same or something else without changing the romanization of the term but having different characters/ideograms of said word.

Here is where the characters/ideograms are necessary to achieve an understanding of a martial arts term. Even then, some terms and characters will mean one thing in general conversation but take on another when that same term is used in an environment such as the dojo or in a martial arts community gathering. One of the reasons when I first began my efforts I would present a term used in the training all to a Japanese friend/acquaintance  who would look at me as if I were nuts until I explained it further. 

As an example look at the above Japanese terms and make a decision which is appropriate to explaining the use and terms for martial arts. It is not so easy. Even then, you could literally take one then provide a meaning that would be adequate to the dojo but no where else and when explained properly in the context of a general conversation the person you ask will in all likelihood agree that it “Could mean that.” 

Personally, when used as a teaching tool and with adequate research that is only now becoming readily available via the Internet and apps for both computers an phones.  

So, in a nutshell, take terminology with a grain of salt. If your dojo requires you learn them then learn them, if not then use them as a tool to gain additional understanding as to what they may have conveyed in the culture and belief system you adopted your martial system from then ask and validate through other sources reputable in language interpretations. If you actually learn a valuable tidbit from this then it is good, if you don’t then “So what.” 

Just one last thing, don’t assume that because you use it in your training hall or that your instructor is an expert does not mean that the terms and meanings are correct or accurate. After all, your instructor is more of an expert in the physiokinetic aspects as to teaching than all the other Asian mystical meanings we assume and assign our martial arts (Note: even using the terms martial arts is open to critique, discussion and meaning, etc. 


Note: Even now, with each post I tend to put a caveat so that misunderstandings may be avoided, if at all possible. 

Knife Defense Rules

Caveat: this post is my interpretation of readings and studies therefore errors and omissions are mine and mine alone. It is highly recommended one fact check the data for clarity. My effort here is self-clarity toward a fuller understanding of the subject matter.  

Note: What I appreciated throughout this authors, author of the book FTW Self-Defense, section on knives his first line of defense in a knife fight has been, “Don’t get into a knife fight!” I am not a knife fighter. I have never, thank God, ever been in a knife fight. I was once put into a position where a person held a knife up against my chest then neck but I managed to deescalate and avoid being cut or stabbed and that was enough to confirm Mr. Jahn’s recommendation, “Don’t get into a knife fight!” Regardless, here is a synopsis of his rules of knife defense:

1. Have a long, sharp, pointy knife.
2. Do not drop your knife.
3. Do not throw your knife.
4. Do not hesitate to use your knife.
5. If the other guy also has a knife, switch to a distance weapon, Never fight knife vs. knife. 

TECH 1: Draw and open your knife without dropping it. Show the open knife to your adversary. Tell him to go away.
TECH 2: If your adversary refuses to leave and instead advances, without hesitation slash him across the face or target the forehead. If he reaches for you, slash his palm and fingers. If he grabs you by the arm or clothing, slice or stab his inner forearm. If he grabs you by the throat or takes you to ground, stab him a single time in the torso, stirring and twisting the blade inside him until he lets go.

If the other guy has a knife, either shoot him or run away. Going knife against knife in real life is practically suicidal. See the term, “Pyrrhic Victory. (A Pyrrhic victory is a victory with such a devastating cost that it is tantamount to defeat. Someone who wins a Pyrrhic victory has been victorious in some way; however, the heavy toll negates any sense of achievement or profit (another term for this would be "hollow victory") )” 

Bibliography:

Jahn, C. R. “FTW Self-Defense.” iUniverse. 2012

Karate-den [空手伝]

Caveat: this post is my interpretation of readings and studies therefore errors and omissions are mine and mine alone. It is highly recommended one fact check the data for clarity. My effort here is self-clarity toward a fuller understanding of the subject matter.  

The characters/ideograms mean, “Karate Traditions.” The first two characters/ideograms mean, “Karate.” The third character means, “Tradition; transmit; go along; walk along; follow; report; communicate; legend; method; way.” 

In martial arts every dojo, over time, creates traditions that are unique to that dojo. This also can be said about a karate system and/or style. Those traditions are the customs and beliefs practiced by that system, style and/or dojo. The karate traditions are about the customs and beliefs that are passed down from generation to generation. It can also consist of behaviors that are often unique to that system, style and dojo. 

What are your dojo’s karate den? What are your system/styles karate den? In the Isshinryu system the karate den are extensive, as they are in other systems/styles such as Goju, Shorin and Uechi Ryu’s. It is that trait that provides them with a uniqueness and personality distinction that is often about copying, teaching and passing down the culture and beliefs of the system/styles founder, i.e., such as Shimabuku Tatsuo Sensei of the Isshinryu wholehearted system/style of Okinawan karate. 


This also contributes to the separateness that karate systems/styles has assumed over the last century as derived from the original system of Okinawan “Ti (Tee).” Karate den describes the reasons why Ti begat Toudi begat Shuri-Naha-Tomari Ti begat Shorin-Goju-Uechi-Isshinryu Ti that begat all the branches and limbs that are the current state of the Okinawan karate communities. 

Self-Defense is Layered Security

Caveat: this post is my interpretation of readings and studies therefore errors and omissions are mine and mine alone. It is highly recommended one fact check the data for clarity. My effort here is self-clarity toward a fuller understanding of the subject matter. This is not a comprehensive model for SD Security but a lead in to the reader studying, practicing and creating there own SD Layered security posture.  

Layered security is the optimal form of self-defense. To achieve this type of self-security you have to start with attaining the knowledge necessary to build your various levels of defense. You cannot defend agains things you don’t know, you cannot defend against things you don’t know you don’t know and this first step is the gathering, study and encoding of said knowledge to have the information to build your optimal form of self-defense.

When I first began thinking of this layered security I had to decide what was the most important, i.e. the level of security posture that would allow me to mostly, if not completely, avoid conflict and violence. Then I realized that every single interaction of humans is about a form of conflict and violence. Your studies as I recommended should begin to inform you of this aspect.

This all made me think of an old maxim we used in a high-security position I held many years ago, i.e. Time-Distance-Shielding. Time, distance and shielding often prevented a person from exposure or at the very minimum the amount of or level of exposure. Exposure being that which, over time, started to erode your security posture exposing the other levels to a type of violence, i.e., damage to your body, mind and spirit.

So, my first layer of self-defense is, “Knowledge of conflict and Violence.” That one is easiest as often found in various models of physical security. Especially one’s personal physical security. Without knowledge most other layers then have flaws in their defenses allowing an adversary to breach that level. This post is short so you will need to begin this knowledge gathering with two, very important books:

MacYoung, Marc. "In the Name of Self-Defense: What It Costs. When It’s Worth It." Marc MacYoung. 2014.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Meditations of Violence: A Comparison of Martial Arts Training & Real World Violence" YMAA Publishing. 2008.

These are what I consider the very foundation on which you build a complete self-defense data-set. It is like creating a data center in your mind that when fully programmed, security and filled you mind can tap into that data-base to achieve a high security level that is layered with strong defenses. Look at these two beginner books as digging, re-barring and filling a foundation with cement that creates a solid base to build your self-defense posture. 

The idea is to take this SD Knowledge and create a security perimeter that will allow you to completely avoid the levels and kinds of conflicts and violence that will get you hurt, badly, and/or killed. 

Once you gain that knowledge you are beginning to develop a series of types and levels of “Awareness.” There is self-awareness, there is environmental awareness and then there is situational awareness and so on. All have a purpose and all can be learned, at least academically, separately so that when encoded the individual then can inter-connect all types of awareness as each situation arises. The goal is to learn, practice then apply awareness in every day life. 

The reason this part is of such importance is that in order to avoid and/or combat conflict and violence you have to see it coming so you can act on it while there is time and distance between you and the conflict/violence. The ability to give yourself the most time and distance in a conflict or situation of violence or potential violence is so you can perceive it in enough time and with enough distance to take the appropriate steps in avoiding it, i.e. see it or sense the danger and leave the area type thing. 

The reason for writing the post on layered security for self-defense is to provide a sense of what can be done to avoid the type of violence that often leads to emotional psychological damage, physical damage, legal and civil prosecution, economical damage and other such ramifications in allowing yourself to be in a conflict that results in violence. 

Awareness and Avoidance go hand-in-hand for your security posture. It is the type of thing that will be with you without having to resort to a hyper vigilant state of mind that cannot be held long due to the stresses it presents. It is about sensitizing your spidey senses that nature has provided so that when it is triggered you can instantly assume a higher vigilance to see what is causing it with enough time and distance to act. 

Part of this knowledge is to provide you with all the situations and scenarios that result when violence is done both as a victim and aggressor or attacker. I say this because there is this boundary in self-defense that when you remain within those boundaries you remain within the square of self-defense. It is about knowing what violence is, understanding the ramifications of conflicts and violence, how to see it and act on it with plenty of time and distance to avoid and/or deescalate it. 

You can’t avoid that which you have no knowledge of and you cannot deescalate it if you have no knowledge of what it is and what it involves and the results of all actions taken to combat it. This is what it is all about when avoiding and/or deescalating conflict and/or violence. Remember that avoidance and deescalation is not just about the externally influenced situation but also internally, i.e. you avoiding actions that would escalate or deescalate yourself so things don’t go bad. 

Another aspect or layer for your security posture to avoid and/or deescalate is the ability to apply conflict communications. You have to have the knowledge to actually know what you are encountering so that you may communicate, to an adversary if distance and time are used up and yourself to talk yourself out of your monkey brain, so your human brain can assess then act with the right communications skills to avoid and/or deescalate.

If all of this fails then the next layer of your security for self-defense is triggered. This is the mental and physical barriers to conflict and violence that have been alluded to throughout the initial security layers. Your knowledge, once again, becomes important since your training and practice of the physical and mental involve those pieces of information necessary to make the physical work when all else falls down.

You have to encode a set of goals and techniques that will get the job done in a reflex like manner bypassing the OODA bounce along with all the effects and levels of the chemical cocktail, the adrenal flooding you will encounter when an attacker attacks. It is about creating a reality based operant conditioning training and practice that will ensure when blitzed by surprise attacks, a flurry of damaging blows, the fear induced and act, all within a second or so after the surprise attack to stop the bounce and cause your attacker to drop into the OODA bounce - something they would want to avoid and are surprised when encountering, etc.

Then the next level of self-defense layered security is the one that is needed “After the incident goes physical.” Here again your firs layer of building a knowledge base will come to bear. You have to know how to interact, articulate and defend against your encounter with legal authorities, i.e. police first, prosecutors second, your own defense attorney third, the family and friends of your attacker fourth, the economical repercussions and expenditures fifth, the medical issues of injuries and medical costs sixth and so on down the line over a long period of time to get to the end safely, securely and alive/with freedom. 

Layered self-defense security is a complex program but doable if you take the steps starting with the two sources stated at the start. I can tell you it takes a lot of study then proper application in training and practice. Most of it can be handled properly provided you have given yourself plenty of time, distance and shielding, i.e. shielding being the actual layers between you and an adversary regardless of the level and/or intensity of the conflict and violence involved. 

This post has barely touched on the complexities and completeness that is the convoluted complexities of self-defense in conflicts and violence. 

Primary Bibliography of Self-Defense:
MacYoung, Marc. "In the Name of Self-Defense: What It Costs. When It’s Worth It." Marc MacYoung. 2014.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Meditations of Violence: A Comparison of Martial Arts Training & Real World Violence" YMAA Publishing. 2008.

Secondary Bibliography of Self-Defense:
Goleman, Daniel. "Emotional Intelligence: 10th Anniversary Edition [Kindle Edition]." Bantam. January 11, 2012.
Miller, Rory. "ConCom: Conflict Communications A New Paradigm in Conscious Communication." Amazon Digital Services, Inc. 2014. 
Miller, Rory and Kane, Lawrence A. "Scaling Force: Dynamic Decision-making under Threat of Violence." YMAA Publisher. New Hampshire. 2012
Miller, Rory. "Force Decisions: A Citizen's Guide." YMAA Publications. NH. 2012.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Facing Violence: Preparing for the Unexpected." YMAA Publishing. 2011.
Elgin, Suzette Haden, Ph.D. "More on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense." Prentice Hall. New Jersey. 1983.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Last Word on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1995
Morris, Desmond. “Manwatching: A Field Guide to Human Behavior.” Harry N. Abrams. April 1979.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1993.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Written Self-Defense" MJF Books. 1997.

Maffetone, Philip Dr. “The Maffetone Method: The Holistic, Low-stress, No-Pain Way to Exceptional Fitness.” McGraw Hill, New York. 2000 and more … see blog bibliography.

Self-Defense Core Material

After a bit of time studying materials on conflict, violence and self-defense I have come to the conclusion that there are two that i would say are absolutely the two prerequisite toward understanding it all. They are, to me, the cornerstone that supports the entire world of self-defense. They are the cornerstone to converting your martial way into a self-defense capable system.

I am not saying these two books are the only sources and if you study them you will learn it all but I am saying that if you want to learn self-defense you need these two to set the proper foundation. It is like taking a martial arts class where they require you to learn about stances and basic body mechanic application in basic techniques, etc., that are considered the foundation of the system or style. 

These two books are the absolute best lead-in to all the other materials necessary to understand this very complex thing we call self-defense, conflict and violence. It is a part of us as humans and understanding it provides us the basis for doing the necessary things to defend against it in all its forms be it an argument with a loved one up to the attack of a predator (hopefully this knowledge along with adequate training will teach you to avoid that predator - that is a good goal).



Primary Bibliography of Self-Defense:
MacYoung, Marc. "In the Name of Self-Defense: What It Costs. When It’s Worth It." Marc MacYoung. 2014.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Meditations of Violence: A Comparison of Martial Arts Training & Real World Violence" YMAA Publishing. 2008.

Secondary Bibliography of Self-Defense:
Goleman, Daniel. "Emotional Intelligence: 10th Anniversary Edition [Kindle Edition]." Bantam. January 11, 2012.
Miller, Rory. "ConCom: Conflict Communications A New Paradigm in Conscious Communication." Amazon Digital Services, Inc. 2014. 
Miller, Rory and Kane, Lawrence A. "Scaling Force: Dynamic Decision-making under Threat of Violence." YMAA Publisher. New Hampshire. 2012
Miller, Rory. "Force Decisions: A Citizen's Guide." YMAA Publications. NH. 2012.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Facing Violence: Preparing for the Unexpected." YMAA Publishing. 2011.
Elgin, Suzette Haden, Ph.D. "More on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense." Prentice Hall. New Jersey. 1983.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Last Word on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1995
Morris, Desmond. “Manwatching: A Field Guide to Human Behavior.” Harry N. Abrams. April 1979.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1993.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Written Self-Defense" MJF Books. 1997.
Maffetone, Philip Dr. “The Maffetone Method: The Holistic, Low-stress, No-Pain Way to Exceptional Fitness.” McGraw Hill, New York. 2000 and more … see blog bibliography.

My Bibliography for Martial Arts:
Advincula, A. J. The Naming of Isshin-ryu: In the beginning there was the one. Isshnikai:The Official Website of Sensei Arcenio J. Advincula. http://www.isshinkai.net/history03-birthofisshinryu.html. 2009
Advincula, A.J. Isshinkai Yahoo Group. http://sports.groups.yahoo.com/group/isshinkaiKarate/. 2010
Advincula, A. J. MSgt USMC (Ret.), Isshinryu Sensei. "His writings and postings of Isshinryu and Kenpo Gokui on Isshinkai. California 2009.
Advincula, A.J. "Chinkuchi". Isshinkai Group Thread: February, 2007
Advincula, Arcenio J. Isshinkai Yahoo Group; isshinkaiKarate@yahoogroups.com: April, 2007
Advincula, Arcenio J. Isshinkai Yahoo Group; isshinkaiKarate@yahoogroups.com: May, 2007
Advincula, A.J. "Chinkuchi". Isshinkai Group Thread: February, 2007
Advincuala, A. J. http://www.isshinkai.net/ 
Advincula, A.J. "Isshinryu no Gokui." Online Posts. 13 April 2001 to present date. IsshinKai Yahoo Group. 

Bolton, Robert, Ph.D. "People Skills: How to Assert Yourself, Listen to Others, and Resolve Conflicts." Simon & Schuster. New York. 1979. 1986.
Boyd, Charles. Kenpo Gokui. Isshinkai Yahoo Group Post 2009.
Breed, George. "Embodying Heaven and Earth: A Radiant Model of Transformation." Publication: International Journal of Humanities and Peace Publication 2003

Chu, W. K. and Sherrill, W. A. The Astrology of I Ching. New York. Penguin Books. 1976
Chu, W. K. and Sherrill, W. A. An Anthology of I Ching. London. Routledge and Kegan Paul. 1977.
Clarke, Michael. "Shin Gi Tai: Karate Training for Body, Mind, and Spirit." YMAA Publishing. New Hampshire. 2011.

Davies, Roger J. and Ikeno, Osamu. "The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture." Tuttle Publishing. Tokyo, Japan. 2002.
DeMente, Boye Lafayette. "Japan's Cultural Code Words: 233 Key Terms That Explain the Attitudes and Behavior of the Japanese." Tuttle. Vermont, Tokyo and Singapore. 2004. 
DeMente, Boye Lafayette. "Kata: The Key to Understanding & Dealing with the Japanese." Tuttle Publishing. Tokyo, Vermont and Singapore. 2003
Bibliography:
DeMente, Boye LaFayette. "Samurai Strategies: 42 Martial Secrets from Musashi's Book of Five Rings." Tuttle Publishing. Vermont. 2008.
DeMente, Boye LaFayette. "The Origins of Human Violence: Male Dominance, Ignorance, Religions and Willful Stupidity!" Phoenix Books. Kentucky. 2010.
DeMente, Boye LaFayette. "The Japanese Samurai Code: Classic strategies for Success." Tuttle Publishing. Vermont. 2004.
DeMente, Boye LaFayette. "The Chinese Mind: Understanding Traditional Chinese Beliefs and Their Influence on Contemporary Culture." Tuttle Publishing. Rutland, Vermont. 2009.
DeMente, Boye LaFayette. "The Chinese Have a Word for It: The Complete Guide to Chinese Thought and Culture." McGraw Hill Publishing. New York. 1996.

Elgin, Suzette Haden, Ph.D. "More on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense." Prentice Hall. New Jersey. 1983.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Self-Defense at Work." New York. Prentice Hall Press. 2000.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1993.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Written Self-Defense" MJF Books. 1997
Elgin, Suzette. "The Last Word on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1995
Elgin, Suzette. "Staying Well with the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense." MJF Books. 1990.

Gladwell, Malcolm. "Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking." Bay Back Books. France. 2007.
Goleman, Daniel. “Emotional Intelligence: 10th Anniversary Edition [Kindle Edition].” Bantam. January 11, 2012.
Gunaratana, Bhante. Mindfulness in Plain English. Wisdom Publications; 2nd edition. September 2002. 

Hall, Edward T. "The Dance of Life: The Other Dimension of Time." Anchor Books. New York. 1983, 1984, 1989.
Hall, Edward T. "The Hidden Dimension." Anchor Books. New York. 1969, 1990.
Hall, Edward T. and Hall, Mildred Reed. "Hidden Differences: Doing Business with the Japanese." Anchor Books. New York. 1987, 1990.
Hanson, Rick and Mendius, Richard. The Practical Neuroscience of Buddha's Brain: Happiness, Love & Wisdom. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications, Inc. 2009.
Heath, Robin. Sun, Moon, & Earth. Wooden Books, Ltd. Ontario Canada. 1999 
Hayes, William R. Major USMC (ret.) Shorin-ryu Karate-do. "My Journey with the Grandmaster: Reflections of an American Martial Artist on Okinawa." Morris Publishing, Kearney, NE, 1997/2009 ISBN: 978-1-575-02-554-4
Huang, Alfred. "The Complete I Ching." Inner Traditions Rochester, Vermont. 1998 
[NEXT]
Isshinkai Yahoo Group, "Re: [Isshin Kai Karate] finding Personal hexagram Okinawa History & traditions" dtd Tue, Jul 20, 2010 at 1:13 AM isshinkaiKarate@yahoogroups.com
Iyengar, B.K.S. Light on Pranayama: The Yogic Art of Breathing. Crossroad Publishing New York. 2010. 

Kaiguo, Chen, Shundhao, Zheng, Cleary, Thomas. "Opening the Dragon's Gate: The Making of a Modern Taoist Wizard. Tuttle Publishing. Vermont. 1996.

Lowry, Dave. "The Essence of Budo: A Practitioner's Guide to Understanding the Japanese Martial Ways." Boston & London, Shambhala Publications. 2010.
Lundy, Miranda. Sacred Geometry. New York. Walker Publishing Company. 2007

MacYoung, Marc. "Violence, Blunders, and Fractured Jaws: Advanced Awareness Techniques and Street Etiquette." Paladin Press. Boulder, Colorado. 1992. 
MacYoung, Marc. “In the Name of Self-Defense: What It Costs. When It’s Worth It.” Marc MacYoung. 2014.
MacYoung, Marc. "A Professional's Guide to Ending Violence Quickly: How Bouncers, Bodyguards, and Other Security Professionals Handle Ugly Situations." Paladin Press. Boulder, Colorado. 1996.
MacYoung, Marc (Animal). “Taking It to the Street: Making Your Martial Art Street Effective.” Paladin Press. Boulder, Colorado. 1999.
Maffetone, Philip Dr. “The Maffetone Method: The Holistic, Low-stress, No-Pain Way to Exceptional Fitness.” McGraw Hill, New York. 2000.
Matsumoto, Michihiro. "The Unspoken Way, Haragei: Silence in Japanese Business and Society." Kodansha. New York. 1988.
Meadows, Donella H. “Thinking in Systems.” Chelsea Green Publishing. Vermont. 2008.
Miller, Kamila. "Campfire Tales from Hell: Musing on Martial Arts, Survival, Bounding, and General Thug Stuff." CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. 2012.
Miller, Rory. "ConCom: Conflict Communications A New Paradigm in Conscious Communication." Amazon Digital Services, Inc. 2014.
Miller, Rory. "Violence: A Writer's Guide." Pacific Northwest. Wyrd Goat Press. 2012.
Miller, Rory and Kane, Lawrence A. "Scaling Force: Dynamic Decision-making under Threat of Violence." YMAA Publisher. New Hampshire. 2012
Miller, Rory. "Force Decisions: A Citizen's Guide." YMAA Publications. NH. 2012.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Meditations of Violence: A Comparison of Martial Arts Training & Real World Violence" YMAA Publishing. 2008.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Facing Violence: Preparing for the Unexpected." YMAA Publishing. 2011.
Morris, Desmond. “Manwatching: A Field Guide to Human Behavior.” Harry N. Abrams. April 1979. 

Newberg, Andrew MD and Waldman, Mark Robert. "Why We Believe What We Believe: Uncovering Our Biological Need for Meaning, Spirituality, and Truth." Free Press. New York. 2006
Nylan, Michael. "The Elemental Changes: The Ancient Chinese Companion to the I Ching." Albany NY, State of NY Press. 1994

Okakura, Kakuzo. Dover Publications. New York. 1964.

Pease, Marshall. The Aquarian I Ching. Brotherhood of Life, inc. Albuquerque, NM. 1993.
Perlman, Steven J. "The Book of Martial Power: The Universal Guide to the Combative Arts." New York. The Overlook Press. 2006. 
Powers, William. "Hamlet's Blackberry: A Practical Philosophy for Building a Good Life in the Digital Age." New York. HarperCollins Publishing. 2010

Sato, Hiroaki. "Legends of the Samurai." Overlook Press. New York. 1995. 
Schmeisser, Elmar T., Ph.D. "Advanced Karate-Do: Concepts, Techniques, and Training Methods." St. Louis: Tamashii Press, 2007.
Schneider, Michael. Constructing the Universe. http://www.constructingtheuniverse.com/. 2010.
Smalley, Susan L. PhD. Winston, Diana. "Fully Present: The Science, Art, and Practice of Mindfulness." Da Capo Press. Philadelphia. 2010.
Stiskin, Nahum. "The Looking Glass God: Shinto, Yin Yang, and a Cosmology for Today." Weatherhill. New York. 1972. 
Sutrisno, Tristan, MacYoung, Marc and Gordon, Dianna. "Becoming a Complete Martial Artist: Error Detection in Self Defense and the Martial Arts." Lyons Press. Connecticut. 2005.

Tankosich, Mark J. "Karate Ni Sente Nashi: What the Masters had to Say. [revised version of a paper that originally appeared in Vol. 27, No. 1 of the Hiroshima University of Economics Journal of Humanities, Social and Natural Sciences.] 2004 pdf format article from Charles Goodin Library Web Site. 
Trosper, Barry R. I Ching: The Illustrated Primer. KGI Publications, San Jose. 1986.

Volk, Steve. "Fringe-ology: How I Tried to Explain the Unexplainable - And Couldn't." HarperOne Publishing. New York. 2011.
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Watson, Burton. "Basic Writings of Mo Tzu, Hsun Tzu, and Han Fei Tzu." New York, Columbia University Press. 1967.
Wei, Wu. The I Ching Workbook. Malibu California: power-press. 2005
Wilhelm, Hellmut and Wilhelm, Richard. Understanding the I Ching: The Wilhelm Lectures on the Book of Changes. New Jersey. Princeton Bollingen Press. 1995.
Wilhelm, Hellmut and Wilhelm, Richard. Understanding the I Ching: The Wilhelm Lectures on the Book of Changes. bollinger series. New Jersey. Princeton Publishing. 1995.
Wilhelm, Hellmut. "Change: Eight Lectures on the I Ching." Routledge & Kegan Paul publishers, London. 1961 and 1970.
Wilhelm, Richard. The Secret of the Golden Flower: A Chinese Book of Life. New York. Harcourt Brace and Company. 1962.
Wilhelm/Baynes. The I Ching or Book of Changes. New York. Princeton Press. 1997.
Wilhelm, Richard and Baynes, Cary F. "The I Ching or Book of Changes." New Jersey: Princeton University Press; 3rd edition. October 1, 1967. ISBN-10: 069109750X
Wilhelm/Byrnes, "The I Ching". Princeton University Press. 1967
Wilhelm, Hellmut. "Heaven, Earth, and Man in the Book of Changes." University of Washington Press, Seattle and London. 1997 

Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Ego (spirituality). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ego_(spirituality). 18 January 2009.

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Why One Kata is Enough or Why did the ancestors to Okinawan Ti teach only one or two kata?

The stories go something like this, “The masters of Ti taught one or two kata. These kata were a compilation of strategies, tactics, goals and techniques they found worked in combat (Note: actually, I felt that in those times it was more about what worked for civil defense, inter-village contests, and as a prerequisite toward training with weaponry) so they could pass them along to those who would follow (Note: this speaks to those who were students of the sensei but had no real experience applying the techniques of Ti in a fight or for defense).

Then I read the following quotes from the section in the book, Meditations on Violence, on the OODA loop by Rory Miller. Reading these quotes and that section made me think that possibly those ancestral karate-ka knew how the OODA loop worked and trained, practiced and later taught that in and through kata. 

Lets take a look and see if maybe this would be true. Here is the first quote, “Decide (the third step of the OODA) is the second time waster. Hick’s Law: States that the more options you have, the longer it takes to choose one. The Brown Belt Syndrome: What happens when you have too many cool ways to win and you get your ass kicked while you are weighing your options.”

Think about this, if the ancestors of Ti knew that the one or two kata provided enough options in a fight or combat, etc., then they would create the kata with those options. It would then seem natural when teaching to help students apply those options in the training of kata and kata application be it kata drills with two persons or applying kata in a free style contest. If this were true and if they adhere to the results of that training then their students could avoid or bypass that part of the loop per the next quote, “It is best to create a group of techniques that form the core of your strategy that are a grouping, not separate and distinct,” of techniques that seem like one. They may be done in a variety of ways yet they are still one distinct group of techniques that can ‘get-r-done.’”

It would be correct then to assume, until it can be proven in the right environment, that if one kata contained all the core options that the master used to create that kata then could be broken down into separate/distinct applications or combinations that would seem like one (the kata practice itself contributes to the effort to perform it as if all the techniques are like “One” application or option that can also be done a variety of ways (as it should be done once you have learned the one kata properly or better the principles underlying that kata as teaching tool) while still applying as one distinct group of techniques, etc. In other words, take the atomistic approach to learning the kata thoroughly then start to mix and match until you can do any combination in any variety or order without having to Decide what to use. 

It is then a matter of encoding these through operant conditioning so that you can literally skip steps in the OODA loop. 

Also, when you consider that sometime later, after the separate distinctions were started by the creation of systems or styles from the original system of Ti, the students started to change, modify or create new applications or options because of thier experiences in civil fights and/or combat with the human need to identify and receive egoistic pride driven credit they named them like, “Shuri-ti, Naha-ti and Tomari-ti. 

Then consider that those same practitioners wanted to preserve their sensei’s teachings to in lieu of just changing and keeping the core options in kata they added their new kata to the old. As time and students come and go this may have caused the increase in the kata requirements when those same, new masters, karate-ka named their systems/styles, i.e. like “Goju-ryu, Uechi-ryu, Shorin-ryu and Isshin-ryu, etc.”

Now, add in time and generations of students along with the changes that brought about more and more not having the chance or ability to experience their teachings in combat and/or civil fighting then the experience levels dropped significantly. Pretty soon the only experiences that were available were the contests that turned into tournaments that turned into sports. Human history is chock full of this type of training and practice until the time, that always in the past, rose up where those same practitioners had to go into battle for survival and/or religious/political reasons thus testing and gaining experience. 

In the early 1900’s, as the world entered into war, the martial systems became a know entity that would instill a combative spirit and fit-n-healthy body and mind that served the military thus the country and so on. This version of the martial systems became the watered down educational version that turned into a training tool that prepared the youth of Asia for the rigors of military training (similar to the empty hand being a prerequisite to weapons training) and finally combat. It was not a combative system but a preparatory physical, mental and spiritual development tool. 

This educational system became the defacto system trained in the dojo when our Military, as occupants of the country, began learning and migrating the systems/styles to the West. The educational systems were contest/sport versions that left out a lot of what makes a martial system adequate for defense in civil fighting or hand-to-hand in combat, etc.

Then we add into the mix also in the early 1900’s when Kano Sensei introduced the dan-i system to Judo. As that also migrated toward Okinawa where it was easily, readily and full accepted in Okinawan dojo due to the influences of the larger student bodies of the times our military caused a stronger relation to training, practice and teaching as it would be applied and tested for the dan-i systems. The military is build heavily on the rank/hierarchal system so that also seems natural with their strong influences, both military and economical, to build what has become the modern sport oriented or spiritual path (often both combined) that is the martial arts of Okinawan karate. 

This all now contributes heavily toward a system of martial arts that requires a student to accumulate a larger quantity of kata, etc., to qualify for rank/grade/level advancement. As this grew the systems/styles lost those necessary requirements that actually made the martial system a civil defense/combative system, i.e. operant conditioning, exposure to chemical cocktails and other reality based not bull shit type training. They lost that need to create a core set of options and condition them to the point where they allow a person to cut out the middle steps of the OODA loop, i.e., “Operant Conditioning is critical in self-defense because it is possible, in certain situations, including surprise attacks, to cut out the middle tow steps of the OODA and develop an automatic, reflex-level, response.”

In a nutshell, it is possible the ancestral practitioners of Okinawa Ti instinctively knew that was needed to train properly and to apply those options in the fight and/or combat hand-to-hand. It is also possible that this loss occurred because our modern world has evolved to a better place where conflict and violence is not as dominant as it once was, i.e., where laws, police and other protections simply did not exist and the way to survival was through conflicts and violence and tribal cohesiveness toward survival and so on. Of course we all would have to overcome our monkey brains because our pride, ego and monkey’s want the recognition, want the rank, and want the earnings that come from the power and prestige that has become our modern martial way. 

Addendum dtd December 15th, 2015 at 10:31 hrs: Additional supporting information provided as follows as to the quantity and quality of kata:

Sorts is a term used to describe Kata in the 1600’s, i.e., “Adding them all up, certainly there are dozens of sorts. However, one cannot learn them all. Likewise there is not need to learn so many. Selecting well 5 to 6 sorts out of them would be enough. […] It is foolish to have a multitude [of sorts] with superficial knowledge and it is an extraordinary moral offense to be proud of that.” 

Bibliography:

Wittwer, Henning. “Scouting Out the Historical Course of Karate: Collected Essays.” Impressum. Germany. 2014 (www.lulu.com)

In closing I would say that our ability to return martial arts or any such discipline to combat conflict and violence is doable because of the efforts of such professionals as provided in the following bibliography:

Bibliography (The above post are my thoughts and mine alone, the below are simply sources that influence my thoughts on this subject):
MacYoung, Marc. "In the Name of Self-Defense: What It Costs. When It’s Worth It." Marc MacYoung. 2014.
Goleman, Daniel. "Emotional Intelligence: 10th Anniversary Edition [Kindle Edition]." Bantam. January 11, 2012.
Miller, Rory. "ConCom: Conflict Communications A New Paradigm in Conscious Communication." Amazon Digital Services, Inc. 2014. 
Miller, Rory and Kane, Lawrence A. "Scaling Force: Dynamic Decision-making under Threat of Violence." YMAA Publisher. New Hampshire. 2012
Miller, Rory. "Force Decisions: A Citizen's Guide." YMAA Publications. NH. 2012.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Meditations of Violence: A Comparison of Martial Arts Training & Real World Violence" YMAA Publishing. 2008.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Facing Violence: Preparing for the Unexpected." YMAA Publishing. 2011.
Elgin, Suzette Haden, Ph.D. "More on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense." Prentice Hall. New Jersey. 1983.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Last Word on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1995
Morris, Desmond. “Manwatching: A Field Guide to Human Behavior.” Harry N. Abrams. April 1979.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1993.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Written Self-Defense" MJF Books. 1997.

Maffetone, Philip Dr. “The Maffetone Method: The Holistic, Low-stress, No-Pain Way to Exceptional Fitness.” McGraw Hill, New York. 2000 and more … see blog bibliography.

Questioning the Principles

I often tout about the underlying fundamental principles of martial systems. In a nutshell it is about learning and applying those principles to achieve master or at least proficiency in martial arts as they are applied against an opponent (opponent is used a lot in the book while I tend to think of an adversary (i.e., attacker and/or predator in social and asocial conflict/violence). 

As I study conflict, violence, force levels and self-defense I realize something missing from the principles as they apply to a SD/MA model. Both are about two major obstacles to making a martial art work in SD. 

First there is SD, i.e. “Conflict communications; Emotional Intelligence; Lines/square/circle of SD, Three brains (human, monkey, lizard), JAM/AOJ and five stages, Adrenal stress (stress induced reality based), Violence (Social and Asocial), Pre-Attack indicators, Weapons, Predator process and predator resource, Force levels, Repercussions (medical, legal, civil, personal), Go-NoGo, Win-Loss Ratio, etc. and more ….”

Then there seems to be a subset of additional and necessary principles (as I am calling them for the moment but are actually physical and mental obstacles to martial systems in the SD arena), i.e., a principle I tentatively refer to as the Chemical Cocktail (stole it from Rory Miller’s book “Meditations of Violence.”) i.e., Attacked Mind, Train It, Breath It Away, Visualize It Away, Sparring vs. Fighting, Degradation of Technique/skills, Peripheral Vision Loss, Tunnel Vision, Depth Perception Loss/Altered, Auditory Exclusion, Weakened legs/arms, Loss of Extremity Feeling, Loss of Fine Motor Skills, Distorted Memory/perceptions, Tachypsychia (time slows), Freeze, Perception of Slow Motion, Irrelevant Thought Intrusion, Behavioral Looping, Pain Blocked, Male vs. Female Adrenaline Curve, Victim vs. Predator, The Professional, Levels of Hormonal Stimulation, ??? (denotes there are more but this is a good start.)

To me, if the original four principles, i.e., theory, physiokinetics, technique, and philosophy, are necessary to make a martial system work for self-defense then these next two categories of SELF-DEFENSE and CHEMICAL COCTAIL are also essential to all martial systems and can be more underlying principles (maybe, the jury is still out on this) because without a solid knowledge, understanding and experience in these area’s the martial arts, as they are taught and trained today, will not fill the bill in an attack. 

Since most of my work on this is more academic, I am not teaching in a dojo anymore even if I am still in practice, etc., and I would suggest that other active martial arts instructors who emphasize self-defense instruction to test this out and to adjust their training accordingly. 

Not saying this is set in stone but it seems to my mind that these two are critical to change a martial art into something the “WILL” work. My soul goal here is to inspire others much younger and much more capable than I to consider these as a possibility. The training of these area’s is far more complex and has requirements I cannot fill in the dojo but others the potential end results can be staggering. I suspect that professionals are getting more and more of this aspect due to the efforts to exchange such idea’s between those professionals that are already getting out there in seminars and so on. 


Actually, I am jealous that there was not this type and extent of information and possibilities in my early and more active years. I suspect there was but in all probability those with the proficiency and experience were few and far between. I am thankful that this has changed for this provides opportunities for the current community that is awesome.

Bibliography (The above post are my thoughts and mine alone, the below are simply sources that influence my thoughts on this subject):
MacYoung, Marc. "In the Name of Self-Defense: What It Costs. When It’s Worth It." Marc MacYoung. 2014.
Goleman, Daniel. "Emotional Intelligence: 10th Anniversary Edition [Kindle Edition]." Bantam. January 11, 2012.
Miller, Rory. "ConCom: Conflict Communications A New Paradigm in Conscious Communication." Amazon Digital Services, Inc. 2014. 
Miller, Rory and Kane, Lawrence A. "Scaling Force: Dynamic Decision-making under Threat of Violence." YMAA Publisher. New Hampshire. 2012
Miller, Rory. "Force Decisions: A Citizen's Guide." YMAA Publications. NH. 2012.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Meditations of Violence: A Comparison of Martial Arts Training & Real World Violence" YMAA Publishing. 2008.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Facing Violence: Preparing for the Unexpected." YMAA Publishing. 2011.
Elgin, Suzette Haden, Ph.D. "More on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense." Prentice Hall. New Jersey. 1983.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Last Word on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1995
Morris, Desmond. “Manwatching: A Field Guide to Human Behavior.” Harry N. Abrams. April 1979.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1993.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Written Self-Defense" MJF Books. 1997.
Maffetone, Philip Dr. “The Maffetone Method: The Holistic, Low-stress, No-Pain Way to Exceptional Fitness.” McGraw Hill, New York. 2000 and more … see blog bibliography. 

Familiarity with Martial Systems/Styles

It is a very good thing to become familiar with other systems/styles. It becomes even easier if one can discern the underlying principles of martial systems within each of those systems/styles because they all are subject to them wholeheartedly. When it comes to principles there are no differing systems/styles. 

An old story goes like this, a martial artists who spends the time learning one kata really well will find when he learns additional kata the learning curve is much smaller. This also goes to the story of the Japanese Story Teller, a student who was required to spend years learning how to tell one story leaves his sensei out of frustration and when the student stops as a way station is tempted into telling his story. The listeners were so impressed they assumed he was a master story teller when in reality he was a novice student.

The real story is not about learning one kata or one story really, really well but to actually learn the underlying principles really, really well. Once you master the principles then any and all systems and styles are familiar but with a personal touch that makes them a system or style over being just one martial art.

Like the one martial system of Okinawan ancient times called, "Ti (pronounced TEE)," being the forefather of Tomari, Naha and Shuri that were the forefather to Shorin, Goju and Uechi Ryu's. They are personal interpretations of Ti and Ti adhered to the fundamental principles of martial systems and became Uechi-ryu, Shorin-ryu, Goju-ryu and Isshinryu, etc.
So, in reality if we spend our time and have the goal of mastering the principles of martial systems regardless of the "name" of a system/style then we truly master all systems/styles or at the very least master the fundamentals underlying all systems/styles.

Study the fundamental principles of martial systems, then study the other systems/styles to become familiar with the individual personal way of applying the principles in martial disciplines.

When your reach this stage then to achieve the ability to defend against conflict/violence you study the non-martial aspects of martial arts as depicted in the addition of the fifth principle:

PRINCIPLE FIVE: PRINCIPLES OF SELF-DEFENSE (“Conflict communications; Emotional Intelligence; Lines/square/circle of SD, Three brains (human, monkey, lizard), JAM/AOJ and five stages, Adrenal stress (stress induced reality based), Violence (Social and Asocial), Pre-Attack indicators, Weapons, Predator process and predator resource, Force levels, Repercussions (medical, legal, civil, personal), Go-NoGo, Win-Loss Ratio, etc. (still working on the core sub-principles for this one)”

Bibliography (The above post are my thoughts and mine alone, the below are simply sources that influence my thoughts on this subject):
MacYoung, Marc. "In the Name of Self-Defense: What It Costs. When It’s Worth It." Marc MacYoung. 2014.
Goleman, Daniel. "Emotional Intelligence: 10th Anniversary Edition [Kindle Edition]." Bantam. January 11, 2012.
Miller, Rory. "ConCom: Conflict Communications A New Paradigm in Conscious Communication." Amazon Digital Services, Inc. 2014. 
Miller, Rory and Kane, Lawrence A. "Scaling Force: Dynamic Decision-making under Threat of Violence." YMAA Publisher. New Hampshire. 2012
Miller, Rory. "Force Decisions: A Citizen's Guide." YMAA Publications. NH. 2012.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Meditations of Violence: A Comparison of Martial Arts Training & Real World Violence" YMAA Publishing. 2008.
Miller, Rory Sgt. "Facing Violence: Preparing for the Unexpected." YMAA Publishing. 2011.
Elgin, Suzette Haden, Ph.D. "More on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense." Prentice Hall. New Jersey. 1983.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Last Word on the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1995
Morris, Desmond. “Manwatching: A Field Guide to Human Behavior.” Harry N. Abrams. April 1979.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense" Barnes & Noble. 1993.
Elgin, Suzette. "The Gentle Art of Written Self-Defense" MJF Books. 1997

Maffetone, Philip Dr. “The Maffetone Method: The Holistic, Low-stress, No-Pain Way to Exceptional Fitness.” McGraw Hill, New York. 2000